cybernetics transdisciplinary approach exploring regulatory systems, structures, constraints, , possibilities. in fact, today name used in rather loose way imply “control of scheme using technology”, , has blunted meaning such extent many writers avoid using it.
cybernetics relevant study of systems, such mechanical, physical, biological, cognitive, , social systems. cybernetics applicable when scheme beingness analyzed incorporates closed signaling loop; is, action scheme generates alter in environment , alter reflected in scheme in manner (feedback) triggers scheme change, referred “circular causal” relationship. necessary cybernetic perspective.
system dynamics, related field, originated applications of electrical engineering science command theory other kinds of simulation models (especially business systems) jay forrester @ mit in 1950s.
concepts studied cyberneticists include, not limited to: learning, cognition, adaptation, social control, emergence, communication, efficiency, efficacy, , connectivity. these concepts studied other subjects such engineering science , biology, in cybernetics these abstracted context of individual organism or device.
norbert wiener defined cybernetics in 1948 “the scientific study of command , communication in animal , machine.” word cybernetics comes greek κυβερνητική (kybernetike), meaning “governance”, i.e., pertinent κυβερνάω (kybernao), latter meaning “to steer, navigate or govern”, hence κυβέρνησις (kybernesis), meaning “government”, authorities while κυβερνήτης (kybernetes) governor or captain. contemporary cybernetics began interdisciplinary study connecting fields of command systems, electrical network theory, mechanical engineering, logic modeling, evolutionary biology, neuroscience, anthropology, , psychology in 1940s, attributed macy conferences. during sec half of 20th century cybernetics evolved in ways distinguish first-order cybernetics (about observed systems) second-order cybernetics (about observing systems). more there talk third-order cybernetics (doing in ways embraces first , second-order)